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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 80-88

Perinatal transmission of Hepatitis B


Department of GI Sciences, Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore - 632 004, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Sudipta Dhar Chowdhury
Department of GI Sciences, Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore - 632004, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-9747.76906

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There is a high global prevalence of hepatitis B. Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B is the predominant mode of transmission in high prevalence areas. The risk of progression to chronic liver disease and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in individuals who acquire the infection at birth is high. Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B can be reduced by early identification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier mothers. High maternal viral loads and maternal serum HBeAg positivity increase the risk of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B. Passive and active immunoprophylaxis at birth reduces the risk of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B in approximately 95%. Failure of immunoprophylaxis has been related to possible in utero transmission of HBV. Reducing maternal HBV DNA levels by treatment with lamivudine in the last trimester of pregnancy in high viremic mothers may help reduce the risk of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B.


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