Hepatitis B Annual
Home

Current Issue  

Back Issues   

Instructions   

Search Reader Login   Users online: 131 Print this page  Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 
>>> Ahead of Print <<<
Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2009| January-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 19, 2011

 
 
  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
 
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Cited Viewed PDF
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Study on awareness about Hepatitis B viral infection in coastal Eastern India
Bijay Misra, Chittaranjan Panda, Haribhakti Seba Das, Kinshuk Chandra Nayak, Shivaram Prasad Singh
January-December 2009, 6(1):19-28
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76902  
Background: Hepatitis B is a major health problem in India. To prevent transmission and progression of the disease in the community, proper community awareness about the disease, including prevention, is necessary. Our objective was to study the awareness amongst the general population about hepatitis B virus, including knowledge regarding vaccine. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Department of Gastroenterology of SCB Medical College. The patients attending the OPD and their attendants were subjected to a questionnaire about different aspects of hepatitis B. Binary logistic regression analysis (SPSS 16) was employed to assess the statistical importance of the observations. Results: In all, 682 individuals (65% patients, 35% non-patients) were studied; 78% were males while 22% were females. Majority were in the age group of 31-40 years. 65% hailed from rural area; 65% were poor. About half of the subjects attended state run medical centers for medical attention; only 17% preferred medical colleges. Awareness about the disease and the vaccine among the subjects was 38% and 32%, respectively. 50% of those who were aware had no knowledge about route of transmission, infectivity, or importance of vaccination. Educated individuals were more aware about hepatitis B vaccine (P < 0.05). Those who read newspaper and listened to radio were more aware about hepatitis B (P < 0.05), and its vaccine (P < 0.05). The percentage of vaccination was 20% among study subjects, but in 30%, their children were vaccinated. The common reason for non-vaccination was lack of awareness (50%); of them, 60% blamed government/doctors/media for their ignorance. Majority (56%) received the vaccine from government hospitals or health centers. Only (10%) obtained vaccination from private centers. Reasons cited for non-vaccination included ignorance (50%), carelessness (12%), high cost (10%), and nonavailability (6%). Source of information regarding hepatitis B included television (75%), newspapers (55%), and radio (26%). Conclusions: Only about one-third of the population in coastal Eastern India are aware about hepatitis B and its vaccine. Less than a third of the population are vaccinated for hepatitis B. The educated, especially those who read newspapers and listened to radio, were more aware about the disease/vaccine. The government health agencies and physicians should work together to educate the masses about hepatitis B and its vaccine.
  1 14,190 1,340
CASE REPORT
Efficacy and safety of telbivudine during pregnancy in a patient with HBeAg-Negative chronic Hepatitis B
Arumugam T Mohan, Muthuswamy Hariharan
January-December 2009, 6(1):157-162
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76912  
Managing chronic hepatitis B (CHB) during pregnancy remains a challenging task as there is no information on the consequences to the fetus. Telbivudine, an oral nucleoside analog (NA), is a potential therapeutic option during pregnancy, but clinical experience is lacking. We report on the safety and efficacy of telbivudine 600 mg/day administered to a 20-year-old Indian woman with hepatitis B e antigen negative CHB, who became pregnant during treatment. Telbivudine was continued with monitoring of maternal hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels during pregnancy and after delivery. The patient maintained polymerase chain reaction (PCR) undetectable HBV DNA and normal ALT levels with telbivudine throughout pregnancy. At birth, HBV DNA was undetectable by PCR in the newborn. No congenital abnormalities were noted. In conclusion, telbivudine therapy during pregnancy was effective in maintaining undetectable viremia, and no safety concerns were noted in the mother and child. Additional clinical studies are warranted.
  - 6,175 1,056
EDITORIAL
Hepatitis B viral infection: From aborting transmission to liver transplantation - Awareness is the key
Shivaram Prasad Singh, Yogesh Kumar Chawla
January-December 2009, 6(1):9-13
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76900  
  - 3,655 245
GUEST EDITORIAL
Viral hepatitis : The need for action
Charles Gore
January-December 2009, 6(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76901  
  - 3,426 233
HEPATITIS B NEWS
Hepatitis B: News from the research world
Paramasivan Piramanayagam, Gourdas Choudhuri, Shivaram Prasad Singh
January-December 2009, 6(1):141-156
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76911  
Despite the development of an effective vaccine, hepatitis B is still the leading cause of chronic viral hepatitis across the world, especially in developing countries, with over 400 million people across the world estimated to be harboring the infection. This section of the journal highlights a few important articles on hepatitis B viral infection published recently and discusses the significance of their results and conclusions. We do hope that this review would enable treating hepatologists, physicians and students to comprehend the significance of these specially selected articles better, which would result in better comprehension and management of different aspects of chronic hepatitis B viral infection encountered in clinical practice.
  - 3,748 252
REVIEW ARTICLES
Hepatitis B virus transmission and reprocessing of endoscopes
Amit Kumar Dutta, Ashok Chacko
January-December 2009, 6(1):110-115
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76908  
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) cross-infection during endoscopy is rare. Most of the reported cases have occurred when the endoscope reprocessing was inadequate. Standard reprocessing of endoscopes and accessories is sufficient to prevent HBV transmission.
  - 6,799 273
Management of HBV-related cirrhosis: Role of nucleoside analogs
Pazhanivel Mohan, V Jayanthi
January-December 2009, 6(1):116-130
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76909  
In the management of HBV related cirrhosis of the liver, viral suppression with safe and effective antiviral agents is essential. Besides, antiviral therapy for long term use in cirrhotics should be safe and affordable with low risk of drug resistance. Treatment of compensated HBV cirrhosis can diminish the risk of hepatic decompensation and progression to hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]. Regression of fibrosis and reversal of cirrhosis have also been reported with antiviral therapy. Further, in decompensated cirrhosis, although liver transplantation is considered as the definitive therapy, inhibition of viral replication before transplantation can delay the need for liver transplant and also prevent HBV recurrence in the post-transplantation period. These patients while on antiviral therapy need close monitoring for viral resistance and adverse events, besides continued surveillance for HCC. This article reviews the literature on the role of nucleoside analogues in the management of HBV related chronic liver disease.
  - 5,071 289
HBeAg negative chronic Hepatitis B: An overview
Mamun-Al-Mahtab , SM Fazle Akbar
January-December 2009, 6(1):131-140
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76910  
Over 350 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B constitute a major proportion of this population. Mutant varieties of HBV resulting from mutations in the precore or core promoter region of the viral genome give rise to HBeAg-negative CHB, and these cases must be differentiated from the inactive carrier state. These patients with HBeAg-negative CHB must be managed judiciously and in certain situations kept under close follow-up instead of rushing to treatment. However, this does not mean advocating adoption of a too conservative approach, allowing many to proceed to irreversible and progressive liver disease. This article provides an overview of the management of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B.
  - 23,642 620
Management of Hepatitis B in the peri-transplant period
Sanjiv Saigal, Amit Basnotra, AS Soin
January-December 2009, 6(1):29-40
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76903  
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important indication for liver transplantation worldwide. The most important concern is the prevention of viral recurrence in the post transplant period. With the introduction of Hepatitis B immunoglobulin, there has been a significance reduction in the rate of HBV recurrence with improved patient & graft survival rates. The combination of oral nucleosides along with Hepatitis B immunoglobulin has further reduced the rate of HBV recurrence, and currently the outcome of liver transplantation for HBV infection is comparable to other indications for liver transplantation.
  - 4,294 226
Tenofovir for HBV: The beginning of the end or the end of the beginning?
Naresh Bhat, Amit Yelsangikar
January-December 2009, 6(1):41-54
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76904  
Patients with Hepatitis B virus infection may present to the treating clinicians at various stages of natural history of hepatitis B infection, including acute viral hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis, incidental hepatitis B s antigen-positive patients and those with decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Management of chronic hepatitis B patients, especially those with e antigen-negative disease poses the biggest challenge today. There are various treatment options available and choosing the correct drug according to the patient profile is important both for optimum response and preventing drug resistance. This article reviews an exciting new molecule tenofovir, which has been approved in August 2008 by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of chronic hepatitis B.
  - 11,456 386
Comparison of different Hepatitis B guidelines
Pradeepta Kumar Sethy, Mahesh K Goenka
January-December 2009, 6(1):55-79
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76905  
Hepatitis B is a global healthcare problem. An estimated one third of the global population have been infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Various guidelines have been proposed for management of chronic hepatitis B. These guidelines have similarities and differences and are changed from time to time. Here, we have reviewed the management guidelines of chronic hepatitis B published after 2007 and highlighted the similarities and differences between their different recommendations.
  - 6,697 604
Perinatal transmission of Hepatitis B
Sudipta Dhar Chowdhury, CE Eapen
January-December 2009, 6(1):80-88
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76906  
There is a high global prevalence of hepatitis B. Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B is the predominant mode of transmission in high prevalence areas. The risk of progression to chronic liver disease and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in individuals who acquire the infection at birth is high. Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B can be reduced by early identification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier mothers. High maternal viral loads and maternal serum HBeAg positivity increase the risk of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B. Passive and active immunoprophylaxis at birth reduces the risk of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B in approximately 95%. Failure of immunoprophylaxis has been related to possible in utero transmission of HBV. Reducing maternal HBV DNA levels by treatment with lamivudine in the last trimester of pregnancy in high viremic mothers may help reduce the risk of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B.
  - 8,199 483
Safety of Anti-tumor necrosis factor ( Anti-TNF) therapy in patients with chronic Hepatitis B
Matthew B Carroll, Robert Holmes
January-December 2009, 6(1):89-109
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76907  
The anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are a class of medications which have given clinicians a new level of control over inflammatory illnesses that was previously unattainable with older disease modifying agents. Though each medication has unique molecular differences, they all have as their specific target the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. With the great improvements provided by the anti-TNF agents though has come a new spectrum of side effects. On the basis of the importance of TNF-α in granuloma formation, neutralization of TNF-α has led to reactivation of latent infections, the most notable being Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Another infectious agent that can elude eradication and enter a latent state, reactivating when the immune system is depressed, is the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Inhibition of TNF-α could also lead to immune suppression and reactivation of the virus much like that experienced with the reactivation of TB. The purpose of this article is to review the current medical literature for cases where anti-TNF agents were used to treat an inflammatory illness such as rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease in patients chronically infected with HBV. Additionally, the role of TNF-α in HBV infection is explored, the differences in the anti-TNF agents are examined, and guidelines regarding the screening for and prophylaxis of HBV are discussed.
  - 11,282 572
TRIVIA
The haunting cry of a boy in the hills
SP Singh
January-December 2009, 6(1):163-164
DOI:10.4103/0972-9747.76913  
  - 2,527 91
  The Journal 
  Online Submission 
  Subscribe 
  Advertise 
  Addresses 
  Most Popular Articles 
  My Preferences